Kidney & Renal Function Markers

Cystatin C Cystatin C is an early marker of renal/kidney damage. Goal – < 0.95 mg/L What to do to improve it – Estimated GFR GFR is the Glomerular Filtration Rate. It is a measurement of the function of the kidneys. Normal renal/kidney function occurs when...

Metabolic Markers

Insulin Elevated fasting insulin levels have been related to atherosclerosis risk. The combination of elevated fasting insulin, ApoB, and sdLDL identifies a very high-risk group for the development of ischemic heart disease. Goal – < 9 on a fasting insulin...

Genetic Markers

These labs suggest your risk of certain medical conditions based on genetic markers. Apolipoprotein E Genotype Apolipoprotein E comes in 3 isoforms: E2, E3, and E4. There is an entire post dedicated to ApoE. In general, patients with the E4 allele respond less...

Cardiac Specific Markers

NT-proBNP B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is released by the cardiac ventricles in response to increased wall tension and cardiac stress, including cardiac ischemia and inflammation. BNP is synthesized as a prohormone that is cleaved into active BNP and an inactive...

Inflammatory Markers

Myeloperoxidase Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a marker of inflammation and oxidative processes that may lead to atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability as well as left ventricular remodeling. In apparently health individuals elevated values of MPO are associated with an...

Cholesterol & Particle Testing

Total Cholesterol The total measurement of cholesterol. Goal – 131 mg/dL What to do to improve it – improve overall health & HDL HDL-P Total HDL particle decrease has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. HDL particle...