Arterial Remodeling With Hypertension

Arterial Remodeling With Hypertension

We know that hypertension is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We also know that hypertension is caused by a number of different mechanisms that result in elevated blood pressure. The blood vessel responds appropriately in an attempt to...
Never Take Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

Never Take Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)

Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a very common blood pressure medication and you should NOT be taking it! HCTZ is a thiazide class anti-hypertensive medication. It works in the kidney at the distal convoluted tubule by reducing sodium (Na+) reabsorption. Since it...
Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)

Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)

What is Lp-PLA2? Lp-PLA2, also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), was initially identified as the enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing and inactivating the inflammatory phospholipid PAF (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine).1-3 PAF...

Small Dense LDL (sdLDL)

As discussed previously, apoB-containing LDL particles exist as a heterogeneous collection of variable sized particles, from small to large. There are technologies that size or measure peak particle diameters (in Angstroms or nanometers).1,2 Phenotype or Pattern A...
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP)

High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP)

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a blood test in our basic metabolic lab panel. Elevated levels of CRP are very common and most patients in our Tulsa, Oklahoma Functional Medicine Clinic want to know what they can do to reduce it. What is CRP? High sensitivity C-reactive...

Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen is a soluble precursor of the insoluble fibrin, the major component of a blood clot. Fibrinogen is a glycoprotein, which consists of three pairs of polypeptide chains, Aa, Bb, and γ.2   Different ways to measure fibrinogen Several laboratory methods exist...