Elevated fasting insulin levels have been related to atherosclerosis risk. The combination of elevated fasting insulin, ApoB, and sdLDL identifies a very high-risk group for the development of ischemic heart disease.
Goal – < 9 on a fasting insulin level.
What to do to improve it – decrease dietary intake of carbohydrates, optimal diet, exercise, improve insulin sensitivity through supplements & medications as indicated.
Free Fatty Acid
Increased non-esterified “Free” Fatty Acids have been associated with the metabolic syndrome and increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes.
Goal – < 0.6 mmol/L
What to do to improve it – focus on metabolic function improvement
Elevated blood glucose levels increase risk for multiple medical problems including cardiovascular disease.
Goal – < 90 mg/dL
What to do to improve it – same as with insulin above
Hemoglobin is the protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the Red Blood Cells. Proteins in the body take on glucose at a rate based on the level of surrounding glucose. The higher the glucose at any given time the higher the amount of glycation (amount of glucose attached to the protein). HbA1c is the glycated hemoglobin. Since the Red Blood Cells (RBCs) survive for 90-120 days, the A1c gives us an idea of how high the blood glucose has been.
Goal – < 5.2
What to do to improve it – optimize health using the ‘Healthy Trinity’ and those interventions listed in the glucose and insulin sections above.
Estimated Average Glucose
Based on the HbA1c above.
Decreased Vitamin D has been associated with hypertension, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome. More recently, low serum 25(OH)D has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and all cause mortality.
Goal – 70-100
What to do to improve it – sun exposure, diet, supplementation
Homocysteine is an amino acid.
Most, but not all prospective studies of homocysteine and cardiovascular risk show homocysteine to be associated with cardiovascular events. Levels >13 umol/L are considered elevated. Such increases in homocysteine levels can occur with aging, menopause, hypothyroidism, low plasma levels of vitamin cofactors (B6, B12 and folate), certain drugs, and chronic renal insufficiency. Genetic variation in enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism contributes to inter-individual differences in plasma homocysteine levels.
Goal – < 11 μmol/L
What to do to improve it – supplement with folic acid. If you are MTHFR (see above) T/T then you should be taking methylcobalamin and 5-MTHF (methylated B12 & folic acid).
Adiponectin is a hormone that is secreted from fat (adipose) cells. However, adiponectin levels are inversely proportional to the amount of body fat % meaning that high body fat typically correlates with low levels of adiponectin. Learn more about this hormone and its effects on health by reading our Adiponectin post.
What to do to improve it –