Chromium

Function: Chromium is an essential trace mineral that plays an important role in optimizing insulin function and the regulation of blood glucose levels. Chromium may also be anti-atherogenic and assist in lowering cholesterol. Following food intake, blood glucose...
Vitamin A (Retinol)

Vitamin A (Retinol)

  Vitamin A is actually a family of similar compounds, the retinoids, that   are related to retinol. Apparently, retinoic acid performs most of the  functions of vitamin A, binding to DNA receptors in target cells. You can see the diagram of this and it might make...
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

The active form of thiamine is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) which is essential for the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and Step 4 of the Kreb’s cycle. It is also essential for the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (one of the glycolysis...
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Riboflavin is needed for the formation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN, seen in Complex I of the ETS) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, from Step 6 of the Krebs). Below is a diagram that shows their structures. Riboflavin is light-sensitive! That’s why you...
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Good sources: meats, liver, nuts, whole and enriched grains. Some niacin can be synthesized from tryptophan (inefficient). DRI: 12-16 mg/d Functions: Co-enzyme formation (NAD+ and NADP), fatty acid metabolism, and decrease serum cholesterol. It is the most...
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

It means “It’s everywhere.” Apparently they named it this because it can be found in a number of sources. Good sources: Liver, broccoli, and egg yolks. DRI: 4-5 mg/d. No RDA has been set. Functions: It is the precursor to Co-enzyme A (CoA) as in...