Phospholipids are the basic building blocks of cellular membranes. Every phospholipid contains two fatty acid tails (triglycerides contain three) linked to a group of molecules containing phosphorus. The phosphorus- containing “head” of a phospholipid is hydrophilic; the “tails” are hydrophobic and love oil. When phospholipids come in contact with water, the hydrophobic tails line up soldier-fashion next to each other with the hydrophilic head groups on either side forming a very thin flexible (or “fluid”), partially permeable bi-layer structure—the cell membrane.*
The cell membrane is where virtually all the important metabolic reactions occur. But lowered phospholipid availability may sometimes limit these essential functions. While the body can biosynthesize phospholipids from other substances, the process requires many enzymes and a great deal of energy. Consequently, exogenous sources of phospholipids can supplement biosynthesis for more optimal membrane composition and function. Research suggests that supporting phospholipid availability is important in cellular protection and repair and in membrane fluidity. Furthermore, the roles of phospholipids in organ and system health continue to expand as findings point to how phospholipids protect hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells, and also support nervous and cardiovascular system health.*[1-10]
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid component in all cells. In fact, it constitutes ~50% of the membrane surrounding every cell as well as the membranes protecting intracellular organelles. It is the most prominent and important among the tens of thousands of molecules comprising a cell. To date, a MEDLINE® database search for “phosphatidylcholine” yields more than 47,000 citations. Noteworthy is one that focuses on PC’s ability to support healthy cellular biochemistry and normal cellular life cycle. This study further elucidates the negative impact of perturbations in PC homeostasis and how PC replacement can be critical in cell viability. Phosphatidylcholine is most concentrated in the liver. In fact, all detoxification enzymes need phospholipids for their activity. PC significantly reduces levels of inflammatory substances, increases antioxidant activity, and decreases lipid peroxidation.*
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) constitutes ~ 35% of the membrane and is a precursor of PC. It contributes ~30% of PC biosynthesis through a triple methylation process. Supplementation with a methyl donor, such as folate, B12, or S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), will support PC biosynthesis. An important characteristic of PE is its ability to “anchor” arachidonic acid (AA). Although AA tends to be associated with the inflammatory cascade, it has critical functions in the body. For example, along with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), AA is key to brain development and visual acuity. AA is also able to “dock” onto phosphatidylinositol (PI), another membrane phospholipid present in Cell Revolution.*
Fatty Acids are another benefit the body derives from phospholipid supplementation. Each of our cells can produce many of the lipid tails, such as saturated (palmitic and stearic) fatty acids and monounsaturated (oleic and nervonic) fatty acids, but not the omega-6 or the omega-3 fatty acids. Cell Revolution contains these two types of essential fatty acids in the critically important ratio of four parts omega-6 to one part omega-3.*
Take 2 soft capsules daily, unless otherwise directed
- Cui Z, Houweling M. Phosphatidylcholine and Cell Death. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Dec 30;1585(2-3):87-96. Review. [PMID: 12531541]
- Demirbilek S, Ersoy MO, Demirbilek S, et al. Effects of polyenylphosphatidylcholine on cytokines, nitrite/nitrate levels, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation in rats with sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2004 Oct;30(10):1974-78. [PMID: 15045164]
- Gundermann, KJ. The “Essential” Phospholipids as a Membrane Therapeutic. Szczecin, Poland: Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Academy; 1993. http://www.nutrasal.com/library/pdfs/5.pdf. Accessed May 9, 2012.
- Hoffman DR, Birch EE, Birch DG, et al. Impact of early dietary intake and blood lipid composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on later visual development. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000 Nov;31(5):540-53. [PMID: 11144440]
- Lieber CS. New concepts of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease lead to novel treatments. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2004 Feb;6(1):60-65. [PMID: 14720455]
- Lee SH, Han YM, Min BH, et al. Cytoprotective effects of polyenoylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) on beta-cells during diabetic induction by streptozotocin. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003 Aug;51(8):1005-15. [PMID: 12871982]
- Ghyczy M, Hoff E, Gareib J. Gastric mucosa protection by phosphatidylcholine (PC). APV/Mainz; March 11, 1996: 1-5. http://www.nutrasal.com/library/pdfs/23. pdf. Accessed May 8, 2012.
- Navder KP, Baraona E, Lieber CS. Polyenylphosphatidylcholine decreases alcoholic hyperlipemia without affecting the alcohol-induced rise of HDL-cholesterol. Life Sci. 1997;61(19):1907-14. [PMID: 9364195]
- Nishioka T, Having R, Tazuma S, et al. Administration of phosphatidylcholinecholesterol liposomes partially reconstitutes fat absorption in chronically bile- diverted rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Mar 22;1636(2-3):90-98. [PMID: 15164756]
- Yehuda S, Rabinovitz S, Carasso RL, et al. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in restoring the aging neuronal membrane. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 Sep- Oct;23(5):843-53. Review. [PMID: 12392789]
- Yehuda S. Omega-6/omega-3 ratio and brain-related functions. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2003;92:37-56. Review. [PMID: 14579682] http://www.direct-ms.org/ sites/default/files/Yehuda%20Omega%203%206%20ratio.pdf. Accessed May 8, 2012.