High-Density Lipoprotein Subclass 2 (HDL2-C)

High density lipoproteins (HDLs) are found in human plasma in the density range 1.063-1.21 g/mL and consist by weight of approximately 50% protein, 25% phospholipid, 20% cholesterol, and 5% triglyceride.4,19 The cholesterol component of HDL has been inversely...

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C)

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, characterized either in terms of cholesterol content or by the major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), have been shown to be inversely related to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In fact studies going back...
Homocysteine

Homocysteine

What is Homocysteine? Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid produced by intracellular demethylation of the essential amino acid methionine (Met). It is not used to make proteins but as an intermediate in methionine metabolism. What does homocysteine...
Apolipoprotein-B (ApoB)

Apolipoprotein-B (ApoB)

Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the major protein component of chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and constitutes 20-25% of the total weight of LDL....
LDL-Particle Number (LDL-P)

LDL-Particle Number (LDL-P)

LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering by statin therapy has historically been the focus of guidelines for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with elevated blood cholesterol. Treatment with statins, while well proven to be effective and widely accepted,...

Insulin Resistance Labs

Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (α-HB), Linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine (L-GPC), Oleic Acid, and the IRi Score Test Guide Test Description Insulin resistance (IR) plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).1,2...