Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)

Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)

What is Lp-PLA2? Lp-PLA2, also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), was initially identified as the enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing and inactivating the inflammatory phospholipid PAF (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine).1-3 PAF...

Small Dense LDL (sdLDL)

As discussed previously, apoB-containing LDL particles exist as a heterogeneous collection of variable sized particles, from small to large. There are technologies that size or measure peak particle diameters (in Angstroms or nanometers).1,2 Phenotype or Pattern A...
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP)

High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP)

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a blood test in our basic metabolic lab panel. Elevated levels of CRP are very common and most patients in our Tulsa, Oklahoma Functional Medicine Clinic want to know what they can do to reduce it. What is CRP? High sensitivity C-reactive...

Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen is a soluble precursor of the insoluble fibrin, the major component of a blood clot. Fibrinogen is a glycoprotein, which consists of three pairs of polypeptide chains, Aa, Bb, and γ.2   Different ways to measure fibrinogen Several laboratory methods...

Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)

Test Description Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. HDL particles can carry from one to four apoA-I molecules per particle. The liver and intestine synthesize lipid-poor apoA-I. The protein promotes...

High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number (HDL-P)

The idea that HDL cholesterol is cardioprotective is well accepted. What is not as well appreciated is that, similar to the discordant relationship between the level of LDL‐C and number of low density lipoprotein particles in patients with residual CHD risk, the...

High-Density Lipoprotein Subclass 2 (HDL2-C)

High density lipoproteins (HDLs) are found in human plasma in the density range 1.063-1.21 g/mL and consist by weight of approximately 50% protein, 25% phospholipid, 20% cholesterol, and 5% triglyceride.4,19 The cholesterol component of HDL has been inversely...

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C)

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, characterized either in terms of cholesterol content or by the major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), have been shown to be inversely related to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In fact studies going back...
Homocysteine

Homocysteine

What is Homocysteine? Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid produced by intracellular demethylation of the essential amino acid methionine (Met). It is not used to make proteins but as an intermediate in methionine metabolism. What does homocysteine...

Lipoprotein(a) – Lp(a)

What is Lp(a) Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly heterogeneous molecule, consisting of a low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with a highly glycosylated apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] molecule covalently linked to the apolipoprotein B moiety of LDL via a single disulfate bond....
Apolipoprotein-B (ApoB)

Apolipoprotein-B (ApoB)

Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the major protein component of chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and constitutes 20-25% of the total weight of LDL....
LDL-Particle Number (LDL-P)

LDL-Particle Number (LDL-P)

LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering by statin therapy has historically been the focus of guidelines for treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with elevated blood cholesterol. Treatment with statins, while well proven to be effective and widely accepted,...
CIMT Testing Predicts MI & Strokes

CIMT Testing Predicts MI & Strokes

Are you worried you’ll have a Heart Attack or Stroke? CIMT Testing may help     I’ve said it many times, in case you didn’t already know, cardiovascular disease is the #1 killer of men and women in both the United States and the world. I...

Insulin Resistance Labs

Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (α-HB), Linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine (L-GPC), Oleic Acid, and the IRi Score Test Guide Test Description Insulin resistance (IR) plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).1,2...

Ferritin

Ferritin is the protein that binds iron. However, elevated ferritin levels suggest potential problems. Elevated ferritin is something I’ve struggled with myself and I have to manage it. Free iron is toxic to cells as it acts as a catalyst in the formation of...

Free Fatty Acids

Test Description Plasma fatty acids can be esterified to form triacylglycerols (triglycerides [TGs]) for storage, or metabolized as a high-energy fuel source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Plasma fatty acids that are not esterified to TGs are bound primarily to...
Insulin Resistance Labs – Leptin

Insulin Resistance Labs – Leptin

Insulin Resistance Labs – Leptin History of Leptin Leptin was discovered in 1994 when Friedman and colleagues performed positional cloning of the ob  gene, responsible for a recessive mutation found decades earlier to cause obesity in the homozygous ob /ob ...
Blood Sugar Control Labs

Blood Sugar Control Labs

Our Tulsa Functional Medicine clinic provides a wide range of blood sugar control labs. These labs provide a much more thorough evaluation of your physiology and how you are handling and processing blood sugar, insulin, and several other hormones. These blood sugar...

Uric Acid

Uric acid ***This page is under construction*** Uric acid increases risk of cardiovascular disease. In fact, it is one of the top 25 modifiable risk factors. Higher levels correlate with higher risk and we want uric acid levels less than 6.0. Allopurinol is a...
Viveve Treatment

Viveve Treatment

Is the Viveve Treatment right for you? During a Viveve Treatment consultation, the extent that vaginal laxity symptoms are affecting daily activities and quality of life will be discussed. Common questions include: Do you leak urine when you laugh, cough, sneeze, or...